By Enrique Sosa Rodríguez
L. a. llegada a tierras americanas de mano de obra esclava, procedente del África, constituye uno de los momentos de mayor complejidad en el desarrollo económico-social del Continente americano.
Estas «piezas de ébano» no solo significaron el sostenimiento del régimen esclavista, fueron además elemento importantísimo de nuestra fisonomía cultural. Procedentes de Nigeria del Sur y de su vecino Camerún, los carabalíes traerían de su patria ancestral un primitivo y complejo fenómeno cultural, único de su tipo en arraigar en tierras del Nuevo Mundo, el ñañiguismo, compuesto por un numeroso grupo de sociedades secretas vulgarizadas con el nombre de Abakuá.
En Los ñañigos se describe con acierto esta manifestación de los angeles cultura mestiza cubana. El coherente manejo de los angeles información obtenida arroja nuevas luces en l. a. comprensión del proceso formativo de l. a. nación y nacionalidad cubanas; contribuye a l. a. desmitificación de las interpretaciones burguesas de carácter racista al valorar con justeza l. a. riqueza de su folclor, el encanto y sabiduría de sus mitos y descubrir sus aspectos negativos y alienantes, incongruentes, como sistema de creencias, en una sociedad que como Cuba, ha alcanzado los angeles etapa socialista del desarrollo de los angeles humanidad.
Con Los ñáñigos se profundizan y amplían los nexos históricos de parentesco y de solidaridad que unen entrañablemente a países dé nuestra América y Africa.
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Extra resources for Los Ñáñigos
Most criticism of Brown and Levinson's approach centers around the following points: First, they view communication "as a fundamentally dangerous and antagonistic endeavor" (cf. 2); third, they postulate a positive correlation between politeness and indirectness; fourth, in channelling all their energy in the study of politeness as a strategy, they neglect other aspects of politeness. Concerning this last issue, in her review article on politeness Kasper (1990:196) strongly argues that politeness is not only an issue of strategy ("performing a linguistic action in order to reach specific communicative goals").
An essential element in the Indian concept of love is that it involves free choice and is not forced upon one (cf. Shukla 1987:55-57). Brahmins consider their association with a courtesan as neither illegal, nor de grading, nor unbecoming (cf. Sabnis 1966: 129), although it is occasionally a source of embarrassment (cf. Cārudatta's attitude in the court in the Mrcchakatikā IX, 145). Courtesans are not supposed to fall in love with their clients. It is a rule of honor that they do not rest before they have completely bled their client dry (for a blunt description of their duties, cf.
On the basis of their social relationship they negotiate a sort of contract. Being polite involves operating in accordance with the rules set in that contract. An important factor which is often overlooked, ignored or minimized is that this contract is renegotiable at any point during the conversation, so the rules that have to be obeyed are quite flexible and, hence, hard to pin down (cf. Koike 1989:188; cf. also further below). In contrast with the views on politeness previously presented, Blum-Kulka's (1987:131) definition of politeness does not attribute any significance to the notion of face.