By Susan J. Dicker
Tackling the language matters dealing with an more and more assorted state, this quantity attracts at the disciplines of linguistics, heritage and sociology in its research. It deals opposing viewpoints on concerns of language range and argues convincingly in its favour.
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Extra info for Languages in America: A Pluralist View (Bilingual Education and Bilingualism)
The first model has been the most common type instituted in the public schools. Ironically, however, only the second type is truly bilingual; while the goal of transitional programs is monolingualism in English, the goal of maintenance programs is bilingualism, high levels of literacy in both the native language and English. And, also ironically, the second type has proved to be more successful. , 1991; Thomas and Collier, 1995). The specter of sabotage rears its head once again. The experiences of individual immigrants is a poor basis on which to rest the education of large numbers of minority-language children.
Throughout the United States' history as a nation of immigrants, English has always prevailed as the dominant language. As we shall see later, in most cases the transition from immigrant language to English is rapid and complete. While older immigrants may struggle to learn the language, their children acquire it fully and learn in the process to denigrate and belittle their native languages. Non-English languages in fact have very little pull: bilingual programs and bilingual voting services, for example, reach only a tiny percentage of language-minority residents.
Political considerations had an influence on these viewpoints and the resulting policy: eradicating the Cherokee language and culture was considered essential to the assimilation of the Cherokee into mainstream American life. As a result, the literacy rate of the Cherokee plummeted and they remained marginalized members of society. German Immigration As Cartagena (1991) explains, in the nineteenth century, Germany was a major source of immigration to the United States. German Americans established vigorous and thriving neighborhoods throughout the country; German served as the predominant language within these communities, and many of the schools populated by these immigrants used German as the language of instruction.