By Monica G. Turner, Robert H. Gardner (auth.)
This paintings offers in-depth research of the origins of panorama ecology and its shut alignment with the certainty of scale, the factors of panorama development, and the interactions of spatial trend with a number of ecological strategies. The textual content covers the quantitative ways which are utilized largely in panorama experiences, with emphasis on their acceptable use and interpretation.
The box of panorama ecology has grown quickly in this interval, its innovations and strategies have matured, and the broadcast literature has elevated exponentially. panorama examine has more suitable realizing of the reasons and outcomes of spatial heterogeneity and the way those differ with scale, and so they have inspired the administration of traditional and human-dominated landscapes. panorama ecology is now thought of mainstream, and the ways are general in lots of branches of ecology and are utilized not just in terrestrial settings but additionally in aquatic and marine platforms. in keeping with those fast advancements, an up to date variation of Landscape Ecology in concept and Practice presents a man-made evaluation of panorama ecology, together with its improvement, the tools and strategies which are hired, the main questions addressed, and the insights which have been gained.”
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Extra info for Landscape Ecology in Theory and Practice: Pattern and Process
2003). In North America, early examples included plans for ecosystem management of crown forests in Ontario, Canada (Perera et al. , 1998; Diamond and May 1976; Mladenoff et al. 1994). Managing landscapes to meet conservation goals will continue to be necessary (Cumming 2007; Lindenmayer et al. 2008) if ecological resources are to be preserved. Land-change science, which seeks to understand the processes of land-use/land-cover change to inform sustainability science (Turner and Robbins 2008), provides another area of research and application that shares much common ground with landscape ecology and aligns with many issues of land planning and management.
An improvement upon the simple linear method to scaling is an additive approach that accounts for spatial variability within an area of relatively large extent. Direct extrapolation (sometimes referred to as “paint by numbers”) uses data or model simulations from a tractable number of discrete elements within a landscape. For example, instead of assuming that biomass is the same throughout the 10,000-ha forest, we recognize that biomass varies with stand age and composition and that we can account for this spatial variability by mapping or using a remote image.
Thus, as the grain becomes coarser the cell characterized by a single temperature may also have greater variability. Rastetter et al. (1992) and Wiens et al. (1993) suggest that a combination of approaches is needed to scale up, and Miller et al. 10). The multiplicative approach can be implemented as a first approximation with the recognition that it may work in some cases, but be widely off the mark in others. Additional detail can be added as needed, either through improving the computations at the finer scales (Wiens et al.