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By Paul R. Trebilco

Scholarly evaluate of Jewish groups within the Hellenistic and Graeco-Roman Diaspora has, long ago, been ruled through our wisdom of the big and influential groups in Rome and Alexandria. This e-book brings jointly the facts for major Jewish groups in one other a part of the Diaspora, particularly Asia Minor. via collating archaeological, epigraphic, classical, New testomony and patristic resources, the booklet offers a useful and coherent description of the lifetime of Jewish groups in Asia Minor, and so offers a extra entire photo than used to be formerly to be had of Jewish existence on the time. through describing the energy, power and variety of Jewish lifestyles in Asia Minor, the writer is ready to aspect to the retention in their Jewish id by means of those groups, regardless of their shut relatives with the broader pagan society within which they lived. a level of integration didn't, for that reason, suggest the abandonment of an lively attachment to Jewish culture. The survey the ebook presents therefore contributes to our realizing of the recent testomony and of early Christianity.

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The only notable exception to the continued support of the Diaspora was the imposition by Vespasian of the didrachmon tax in favour of Jupiter Capitolinus to be paid to the fiscus Judaicus by every Jew from the age of three to sixty. Whilst this was a source of humiliation and annoyance to the Jews, it did not signify the withdrawal of Roman support, as Vespasian's confirmation of Jewish privileges at Alex­ andria and Antioch shows. All of this is important in itself and is further evidence which suggests that the Diaspora was not involved 130 Conclusions 33 in the war of 66-70 CE.

Since Paul tells us that he was persecuted by Jews as well as Gentiles, we can suggest that at least a part of this persecution was at the hands of Jews. Thus, even if we cannot argue more strongly for the hist­ oricity of the whole of Luke's account, we can at least suggest that Luke's description of persecution by Jews is a well-attested tradition. In Acts 16:1 - 3 we learn of the Christian Timothy, who probably came from Lystra. He was the son of a Jewish Christian woman and a Greek father, who was probably already dead.

The letter shows that people sent by Hyrcanus had visited Gaius Rabirius, with documents showing that it was lawful for them to observe the Sabbath. This mediation by Hyrcanus for the Jews of Asia Minor is significant and is clearly 59 60 61 62 18 Jewish communities in literary sources one of the reasons the Romans granted the Jews their privileges. It also shows the links at this time between Jewish communities in Judaea and Asia Minor. As we have noted, the Jews were granted exemptions from military service at various times so that they could observe the Sabbath as they wished.

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