By Mike Davenport, S. J. Hannahs
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Extra info for Introducing Phonetics and Phonology
2. /oi/ showed a low, back nucleus and glide toward the high front portion of the vowel space. /ai/ is discussed further below. Hazen and Fluharty (2001) found that “traditional” Appalachian dialect features, including /ai/ monophthongization and ungliding, were dying out among young West Virginians, but it is important to note that many of their speakers are suburban rather than rural, and several of them are what these researchers call “first-generation” Appalachians since they have in fact moved to the Appalachian region from the North.
7 give unnormalized formant values in Hertz. 3 gives the patterning of / / for thee speaker groups and shows that the Northern Whites cluster toward the bottom right of the vowel space, indicating that their / / is generally lower and back relative to that of the Appalachians and African Americans. 4 shows the patterning of pre-oral /æ/. The Northern White participants 41 400 450 500 550 F1 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 2400 2300 2200 2100 2000 1900 1800 1700 1600 1500 F2 AA AP N. 3 The patterning of / / for three speaker groups.
Short, or lax vowels, according to this scenario, are more centralized. The concept of peripherality is important to Labov’s (1994) claims about chain shifting. Stockwell and Minkova (1997: 2) argue that what Labov characterizes as peripheral diphthongs are actually non-peripheral and vice-versa. Labov (1994) also suggests that monophthongization of /ai/ sets off a vowel rotation for the front vowels, in which /i/ and /G/ are reversed, as well as /e/, and / /, as part of the Southern Shift. This section described /ai/ glide-weakening as a local change specific to Southern and African American varieties of English.