Download International English by Peter Trudgill, Jean Hannah PDF

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By Peter Trudgill, Jean Hannah

Foreign English is an obtainable and wonderful advent to the most types of English spoken in the course of the global. The 3rd variation has been increased and up-to-date so as to add huge new info on nearby and ethnic forms of American English. It additionally examines a variety of non-native sorts of English, from West Africa to Bangladesh, and Pakistan to the Philippines.

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Sample text

While the reason why, in the grammar of any language, we call one of the units "word" is that that unit, more than any other, yields lexical items, what defines the lexical item is not the fact that it is grammatically a word — it may not be — but the fact th it cannot be fully described by the grammatical categories. The latter account for the closed systems of language, and the items enterin into them, this being the essential characteristic of grammar. One important consequence of the difference between grammar and lexis is that information theory, which is entirely appropriate to the statement of grammatical meaning — since information is a propert of closed systems — is at present no use for the study of lexis: there i no way of quantifying the information carried by an open set.

The weighting of these (descriptive) factors from the structure of the target language against the (comparative) factors drawn from the source language is one of the major theoretical problems, analogous to the weighting of input against internally conditioned probabilities in automatic speech analysis. As an example, consider the translation of the item duo in the Chinese version of the first sentence in the Appendix. As a morpheme it is most likely to require, in written English, the rendering many, though there are a number of other possible equivalents.

It is 23 MACHINE TRANSLATION: T H E EARLY YEARS expected in fact to perform a complex operation of comparative descriptive linguistics, of which translation can be regarded as a special instance. There are a number of things that can be said about translation from the linguistic point of view. For this it will be necessary to introduce some categories from linguistic theory, the technical terms for which are usually disguised as ordinary words, like "level" and "unit" and "form" and "rank" — linguists, especially European linguists, tend to prefer redefining old terms to coining new ones.

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