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By Tuncay Zorlu

Ottoman naval know-how underwent a metamorphosis lower than the rule of thumb of Sultan Selim III. New different types of crusing warships resembling - and three-decked galleons, frigates and corvettes started to dominate the Ottoman fleet, rendering the galley-type oared ships out of date. this era observed technological suggestions resembling the adoption of the systematic copper sheathing of the hulls and bottoms of Ottoman warships from 1792-93 onwards and the development of the 1st dry dock within the Golden Horn.

The altering face of the Ottoman army was once facilitated through the impression of the British, Swedish and French in modernizing either the shipbuilding quarter and the behavior of naval struggle. via such measures as education Ottoman shipbuilders, heavy reliance on aid from overseas powers gave method to a brand new trajectory of modernization. utilizing this facts, Zorlu argues that even supposing the Ottoman Empire was once an important and glossy self reliant strength during this interval, a few technological dependence on Europe remained.

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46 Nails and bolts (Mismâr and Civata) used in naval works Nails were produced by ironsmiths by smelting of a variety of substances. Nails made of wood, iron, copper and a copper–zinc mixture might be used, depending on the structure of the ship. For instance, copper nails were used to fasten the copper planks onto the bottoms and hulls of the ships. 47 A decree by Kaptan› Derya Küçük Hüseyin Pasha to Murâb›tzâde Hasan, the governor of Rhodes (13 October 1792), illustrates why certain materials were preferred for producing nails and bolts.

If the land 36 INNOVATION AND EMPIRE IN TURKEY route was to be chosen, copper was sent to the Iznikmid port (today’s Izmit) before being processed in Tokat and then transported to the Imperial Naval Arsenal in Istanbul on ships. 153 Mikyâs-› Sefâin (Measurements of Ships), a book translated by Diyarbak›rl› Abdülhamid from an unknown writer in the beginning of the nineteenth century, shows that the number of copper plates of 28 and 32 vak›yyes, for sheathing the careen of a three-decker galleon with 120 guns, was 4,738.

73 In the year 1803, 200 kantars of lead were demanded for the equipment and fitting out of the three-decked Mesudiye galleon and some other ships. 74 Sailcloth (Kirpas) Sailcloth was a type of cloth woven from canvas and used in the production of sails and awnings of sailing vessels. 75 It has already been discussed how the transition from the traditional oar-powered galley type ships to the galleon type sailing DEVELOPMENTS IN OTTOMAN SHIPBUILDING TECHNOLOGY 25 ships created a huge demand for sailcloth.

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