By Randall F. Barron
Discusses worthwhile techniques within the layout of business noise abatement platforms and kit to minimize the iteration and transmission of noise to conform with criteria of OSHA, the EPA, and HUD.
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Additional resources for Industrial Noise Control and Acoustics
1 Comparison Method The sound power may be measured by comparison of the measured sound pressure level in a reverberant room with the sound pressure level of a reference (calibrated) sound source at the same location. A reference sound power source was originally designed by a committee of the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) in the 1960s (Baade, 1969). Reference sound power sources are commercially available with calibration accuracies of Æ0:5 dB for frequencies between 200 and 4000 Hz and Æ1:0 dB between 100 and 160 Hz and between 5 and 10 kHz.
The weighting for the A- and C-scale is shown in Table 2-4. These values are also plotted in Fig. 2-6. The large negative weighting factor for low-frequency sounds corresponds to the fact that the human ear is not as sensitive to low-frequency sound as it is for sound at frequencies in the 1 kHz to 4 kHz range. For example, a sound having a sound pressure level of 40 dB at 63 Hz would be perceived by the human ear as having a sound pressure level of approximately ð40 À 26Þ ¼ 14 dB. Alternatively, a sound that was perceived to have a sound pressure level of 40 dB for a frequency of 63 Hz would actually have a sound pressure level of ð40 þ 26Þ ¼ 66 dB.
2-31) 26 Chapter 2 The directivity factor for locations off the axis ðQ Þ may be expressed, as follows: Q ð; ’Þ ¼ QH 2 ð; ’Þ ð2-32) If a spherical source of sound is placed near the ﬂoor or a wall, as shown in Fig. 2-5, sound is radiated through a hemispherical area, S ¼ 2r2 . In this case, the intensity is: I¼ W 2W QW ¼ ¼ 2 2 2r 4r 4r2 For this case, we see that the directivity factor is Q ¼ 2, and the directivity index is: DI ¼ 10 log10 ð2Þ ¼ 3:0 F IGURE 2-5 Sound sources near a surface for (A) directivity factor Q ¼ 2 and directivity index DI ¼ 3 and (B) for Q ¼ 4 and DI ¼ 6.