By Stanford J. Shaw, Ezel Kural Shaw
Reform, Revolution and Republic: the increase of recent Turkey, 1808-1975 is the second one booklet of the two-volume historical past of the Ottoman Empire and sleek Turkey. It discusses the modernization of the Ottoman Empire in the course of the 19th and early 20th centuries, the unfold of nationalism between its topic peoples, and the progressive alterations in Ottoman associations and society that ended in the Empire's death and the increase of the democratic Republic of Turkey. in keeping with broad learn within the Ottoman documents in addition to Western resources, this quantity analyzes the exterior pressures, reform measures, institutional alterations, and highbrow hobbies that affected the heterogeneous Ottoman society in the course of the Empire's final century. It concludes with an research of latest Turkey's constitutional and political buildings and primary family and international difficulties.
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Extra info for History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey: Volume 2, Reform, Revolution, and Republic: The Rise of Modern Turkey 1808-1975
Muhammad AH was receptive to the idea of intervening in Greece not only because of his desire to act as a loyal vassal but also because of his own origins in Albania, his interest in establishing his rule in Greece, and the disruption that the revolt had caused in Egypt's trade with the Aegean. He accepted the sultan's call in return for promises that he would be appointed governor of both the Morea and Crete. Ibrahim Pa§a brought an expeditionary force of some 17,000 men to Crete Beginnings of Modem Reform: The Era of Mahmut II, 1808-1839 19 and then to the Morea (February 1825).
42 In order to gain the support of the mass of the people, Mahmut worked not only through their natural leaders among the ulema but also through a concentrated propaganda campaign unequaled in Ottoman history. He emphasized his own firmness, resolution, and enlightenment while pointing out the decrepit state of the Janissaries, their inability to defend the empire against its enemies, as shown in the campaigns against the Greeks and Persians, and the contrast between them and the modern and efficient Egyptian army.
13 But the agreement was not kept by the rebels. As the Segbans left the palace in accordance with the compromise, disarmed and without their uniforms, they were set upon by those waiting outside, while other mobs attacked and destroyed their barracks, killing those inside. A number of notables who had supported the reforms were killed, including Ramiz Pa§a and Kadi Abdurrahman. It seemed, indeed, that reaction had won out again. But Mahmut remained on the throne, firmly committed to reform, and now convinced that new corps could not be effectively built unless the old ones whose interests were being threatened were destroyed, that in fact reform could not be limited only to the military but had to 6 The Rise of Modern Turkey, 1808-1975 span the whole spectrum of Ottoman institutions and society.