By Gunnar Heine
This article deals a complete therapy of the complete GSM community and the signalling equipment of its terrestrial interfaces. It introduces all of the interfaces among the GSM subsystems, beginning with the Abis- and Air-Interface and carrying on with directly to VLRs, HLRs and MSCs in the NSS. The reader learns concerning the numerous signalling criteria or tools utilized in GSM, together with TCAP and MAP, and the way to use this data while operating with GSM networks. The word list explains abbreviations, phrases, parameters, counters and messages often encountered whilst operating with GSM. moreover, it positive factors quite a few figures, tables, lists, statistical formulation, real-life examples and daily comparisons.
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Additional info for GSM Networks. Protocols, Terminology, Implementation
The secretary has some freedom and acts independently within that area of freedom to ensure that the dinner party is well prepared and presented. Another, more technical example is the Layer 6 of the TCAP that was specified by ITU as a general interface for all kinds of users. It is the responsibility of the users to provide Layer 6 a suitable interface, that is, a buffer. That interface or buffer is realized by Layer 7 in the according applications. 7 Comprehension Issues Because of the somewhat fuzzy borders between the various layers, it is sometimes difficult to apply the OSI Reference Model to an actual problem.
3 “Leap” in the layers between the air interface and the Abis interface. 48 GSM Networks: Protocols, Terminology, and Implementation coordinate the whole process, while others work onsite to do all the packing and unpacking. 1 in the Glossary). The moving company can be likened to Layers 5, 6, and 7 of the OSI model. The employees in the office, who control the whole process, can be likened to Layer 7. The onsite employees whose function it is to separate the various household items, such as the clothes, dishes, furniture, and so on, and to pack them appropriately can be likened to part of Layer 6.
That relationship, particularly the geographic interdependency, allows for the integration of the VLR into the MSC. All manufacturers of GSM systems selected that option, since the specification of the B-interface was not entirely available on time. In GSM Phase 2, the B-interface is no longer an open interface (as outlined above). It is expected that this trend will continue. A network operator still has the freedom to operate additional MSCs with a remote VLR, but that is somewhat restrictive in that all the MSCs must be supplied by the same manufacturer.