Download Greek Fortifications Of Asia Minor 500-130 B by Konstantin Nossov, Konstantin S Nossov, Brian Delf PDF

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By Konstantin Nossov, Konstantin S Nossov, Brian Delf

Sandwiched among the guts of historic Greece and the lands of Persia, the Greek towns of Western Anatolia have been the spark that ignited the most iconic conflicts of the traditional global. Fought over time and again within the fifth century BC, their conquest by way of the Persians supplied a casus belli for Alexander the nice to pass the Hellespont in 334 BC and release the conflict of Granicus and the sieges of Miletus and Halicarnassus. a mix of Greek and Asian varieties of army structure, those fortified towns have been innovative of their multi-linear building - successive protecting partitions - with loopholes and mural arches. Konstantin Nossov illustrates the evolution of Greek fortifications and the impacts of the quarter they bordered during this interesting research.

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On entering the site, one finds oneself in front of a monumental Hellenistic main gate, which is flanked by two huge, round towers. Only half of each of them remains standing, but they are still very impressive. They were at least 18m high occupying a circle over 11m in diameter. The ground floor was blind, the first floor had slits, and the second and third floors had windows (two and The main gate of Perge. The ruins of two round towers once flanking the gate can be seen in the foreground. Slits and windows for missile-throwing engines are visible in the ruined towers.

By then the fortifications did not answer the needs of defence; there were few, if any, sally-ports at Halicarnassus so the defenders had to make sorties through a gate or a breach in the wall. Therefore, a great number of posterns were already made in fortifications built at the turn of the 4th/3rd centuries B C , as for instance, at Heracleia on Latmus or Ephesus. In their attempt to adjust to more aggressive siegecraft, the fortifications themselves became more visually striking. Fortifications built in the late 4th century BC - for example, those at Colophon, Erythrae and Priene - carry notable stretches of cremaillere (jogs) providing for the enfilade of any approach routes.

One such postern survives by the west tower. Behind the towers there was an oval courtyard, similar in shape to courtyards found at Sillyon and Side. Its rearward side probably narrowed between spurs, between which there was a second gate. The courtyard must have been built at the same time as the towers and gate. Early in the 2nd century AD a charitable citizen called Plancia Magna had it rebuilt, and statues of Roman emperors, as well as of Plancia Magna's relatives, were placed in the bays on the sides of the courtyard.

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