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By Rifa'at Abou-El-Haj

Rifa'at 'Ali Abou-El-Haj reevaluates the proven historic view of the Ottoman Empire as an japanese despotic countryside in decline and as a substitute analyzes it as a contemporary nation such as modern states in Europe and Asia.

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Crystals or agglomerates of solid fatty substances mayaiso be present in forms sufficiently large to be detected microscopically. Some authorities claim that a second continuous phase composed of aqueous solution exists in butter. Butterfat is a mixture ofmany different glycerides. The relative proportions of these compounds are controlled by the breed of cattle, the season of the year, and, particularly, the type of feed. The aqueous phase contains milk proteins, native minerals plus any added salt, lactose, and skim-milk and wash-water components.

Solids Fraction Index (SFI) The proportion of solid to liquid fat in a shortening at a given temperature has an important relationship to the performance of shortening at that temperature. This proportion cannot be deduced from the melting point of the fat or from the consistency of the shortening at the given temperature. However, it can be accurately determined by a technique called dilatometry. The principle ofthe test is measurement ofthe change in volume of samples of constant mass held at aseries of temperatures.

Food Oils and Their Uses, 2nd Edition. , Westport, CT. B. 1960. Shortenings. In Bakery Technology and Engineering. A. Matz (Editor). , Westport, CT. B. 1981. Bulk handling of fats and oils. Cereal Foods World 26,446448. 3 Sweeteners Sweeteners are used in large quantities for glazed popcorn and extruded collets. Although they are not "sweeteners" in the strict sense of the word, corn syrup solids of low dextrose equivalent (dextrins or maltodextrins) are sometimes used as carriers for flavors that are to be applied to salty snacks by dusting or in an oil spray.

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