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By W. Elenbaas (eds.)

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3 Halophosphates Since the use of zinc beryllium silicate was abandoned, the halophosphates have become the most important phosphors for low pressure mercury lamps. As compared with the old lamps containing zinc beryllium silicate the luminous output is higher and the maintenance during lamp-life is also better. The higher light efficiency is due to the fact that the amount of light radiated for the average quantum is greater than for the zinc beryllium silicate-containing phosphor mixtures having the same colour.

5 10 - FLUORESCENT LAMPS 15 20 30 40 50 KI0- 3 torr -L_ ~I 1'-- J [7 60 40 20 0 0 J f7 v i 10 30 60 Fig. 2. Relative efficiency 1} of a 40 W fluorescent lamp, as a function of the mercury vapour pressure. The pressure is indicated at the top of the diagram, and the temperature at which this pressure occurs on the bottom scale. If we then do not take special measures, the mercury vapour pressure will become too high and the efficiency will be lower for two reasons : the larger current density and also the excessive mercury vapour pressure.

In the more general case, that of a loss of energy to the surroundings, the emission is at longer wavelengths than the absorption. This rule is known as Stokes' law. It amounts to a complete separation of absorption and emission spectrum. This applies also for most of the lamp phosphors, for which absorption starts at about 300 nm, whereas the emis- LUMINESCENCE, FLUORESCENCE AND PHOSPHORESCENCE 37 sion is in the visible spectrum. Occasionally, however, we meet phosphors for which the emission and the absorption spectrum partly overlap (Fig.

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