By Hossein Razavi
This ebook offers first-hand details and research of ways multilateral, bilateral, and advertisement financiers choose to help an strength undertaking. It offers the foremost adjustments within the attitudes and orientations of those financiers as they've got entered a aggressive setting looking possibilities to do extra enterprise within the strength quarter of constructing nations. The reader is guided during the strategy of knowing the basics of undertaking financing, discovering the financiers, and constructing a suitable venture package deal. ultimately, a few real-world case reports display the intricacies of mobilizing cash for initiatives in a variety of segments of the power region.
Abbreviations and Acronyms
devices and Conversion components
desk of Contents
Part I. The Setting
1. basics of venture Financing
2. demanding situations of venture Financing in constructing international locations
Part II. learning the Financiers
three. resources of Financing
four. getting access to aid from international Multilateral associations
five. Borrowing from nearby improvement Banks
6. Bilateral resources of Financing
7. gaining access to advertisement money
Part III. Designing a suitable venture Package
eight. examining the enterprise surroundings
nine. setting up fiscal and monetary Viability
10. Structuring the Financing package deal
eleven. Environmental and Social issues
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Additional info for Financing Energy Projects in Developing Countries
Summary 1–5. Project Risks • Identiﬁcation, analysis, mitigation, and allocation of project risks are essential when structuring a project ﬁnance package. • Project risks endanger the project during project preparation, plant construction, and plant operation. • All risks are initially borne by project sponsors. However, project sponsors enter into numerous guarantee and contractual arrangements to hedge against risks. • The practice of combining various instruments for guarantees, borrowing, and mobilization of equity has turned into a complex discipline requiring innovative methods of ﬁnance.
See fig. ) S O U R C E S O F F I NA N C I N G Fig. 3–2. Changes in methods of ﬁnancing power projects 35 36 F I NA N C I N G E N E R G Y P R O J E C T S I N D E V E L O P I N G C O U N T R I E S During this period, power project ﬁnancing in developing countries involved the raising of funds by public utilities through government development budgets or through oﬃcial borrowing. Oﬃcial borrowing was ﬁnanced by multilateral and bilateral agencies and some commercial sources. Generally, the public utility would borrow funds with government backing, usually in the form of a government counterguarantee.
Environmental and Social Concerns Before attempting to structure the ﬁnancing of a project or even approaching ﬁnanciers, project developers should become familiar with • • The many sources of funds, including grants, soft loans, and technical assistance, that can be tapped for a project. The role that each ﬁnancier normally wishes to play in a project. Most ﬁnanciers would like to enter a project when the business environment is ready. Others, such as multilateral institutions, want to come in only if they can improve certain aspects of the business environment.