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Extra info for Fc Power Trading Course -Forex Capital Markets
An innovation of this type may lead to a reduction in production and/or transport costs, or an increase in the quality of the products or services concerned. As well as the production function, logistics, equipment and the methods of procurement of the inputs and software used may be involved. As well as these main forms of innovation, there are: • innovation in organisational models and processes; • market innovation, involving the extension of existing products and services to new markets or customers; • marketing innovation, with changes to design and packaging, prod- uct positioning, pricing and forms of promotion; • management innovation, in which the management processes and culture are modified; and • infrastructural innovation.
Innovative business requires a complex process, often with rapid swings in performance, where the lack of adequate financing for one stage in the life cycle may put the survival of the entire project at risk. In terms of the risk involved, the crucial steps in the life cycle of innovative firms are the seed and early stages, which lead from the development of the innovative idea to the production of prototypes, the start of production and finally the market launch. With regard to the forms of financing considered most suitable for the various stages of the life cycle of innovative firms (OECD 2004; European Commission, 2005a), the general assumption is that business angels will be involved in the seed and start-up stages, venture capitalists from start-up to early/sustained growth and private equity investors in the later stages.
First, we focus on the problem of defining innovation and innovative activities and on the factors influencing innovation. Then, we analyse the mechanisms by which innovation is spread through the economy, by means of knowledge spill-over and entrepreneurship capital, to influence economic growth. Finally, after pointing out that the financing gap is particularly large for new and innovative small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), we analyse venture capital as a further mechanism of economic growth.