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By Ryan Gingeras

The cave in of the Ottoman Empire was once certainly not a unique occasion. After 600 years of ruling over the peoples of North Africa, the Balkans and heart East, the demise throes of sultanate encompassed a chain of wars, insurrections, and revolutions spanning the early 20th century. This quantity features a complete accounting of the political, fiscal, social, and overseas forces that introduced about Read more...

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After 600 years of ruling over the peoples of North Africa, the Balkans and heart East, the cave in of the Ottoman Empire encompassed a chain of wars, insurrections, and revolutions Read more...

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Revolution 17 accept the government’s abolition of the corvée. Other rural communities drove out newly appointed judges or violently disobeyed new regulations governing grazing rights. A number of legal and unofficial exemptions, as well as generalized antipathy, bedeviled the introduction of generalized military conscription. Clerics and religious scholars of various faiths cast doubt and aspersions on even the suggestion of reform. While Jewish, Orthodox, Catholic, Armenian, and Eastern Christian clergymen feared losing their collective autonomy and political status promised to them by past sultans, Islamic scholars and preachers railed against the notion of political and social equality with the empire’s native non-Muslims.

Yet, in an era defined by foreign intervention and insurrection at distant ends of the empire, Abdülhamid, as well as officers and officials of various ranks, could not help but equate Christianity with Western interference and native separatism. Dictates from the throne often called into question the genuine fealty of Armenians and Orthodox Christian citizens. In castigating the reports of American missionaries who observed state efforts to stamp out rebellion in Bulgaria, the sultan dismissed any notion Muslims were responsible for crimes against civilians.

Said Halim’s assumption of the duties of the grand vizier, which occurred within hours of the funeral taking place at the foot of the Monument of Liberty, also signified an important shift away from many of the precedents set by Mahmud Şevket. The latter’s death marked the final and complete ascendency of the CUP. As a party comprising predominately junior officers and officials, the rise of the CUP provided a platform for a younger cohort of men who eventually supplanted or usurped the power and authority of administrators drawn from Şevket’s generation.

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