By Ali Mobasheri, Carolyn A. Bondy, Kelle Moley, Alexandrina Ferreira Mendes, Susana Carvalho Rosa, Stephen Richardson, Judith A Hoyland, Richard Barrett-Jolley, Mehdi Shakibaei
Articular cartilage is a distinct and hugely really expert avascular connective tissue during which the provision of oxygen and glucose is considerably under synovial fluid and plasma. Glucose is a necessary resource of strength in the course of embryonic development and fetal improvement and is key for mesenchymal cellphone differentiation, chondrogenesis and skeletal morphogenesis. Glucose is a crucial metabolic gasoline for differentiated chondrocytes in the course of post-natal improvement and in grownup articular cartilage and is a typical structural precursor for the synthesis of extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycans. Glucose metabolism is necessary for progress plate chondrocytes which perform lengthy bone development. Glucose concentrations in articular cartilage can differ counting on age, actual task and endocrine prestige. Chondrocytes are glycolytic cells and has to be in a position to feel the focus of oxygen and glucose within the extracellular matrix and reply effectively by means of adjusting mobile metabolism. therefore chondrocytes should have the capability to outlive in an extracellular matrix with constrained food and occasional oxygen tensions. released information from our laboratories recommend that chondrocytes show a number of isoforms of the GLUT/SLC2A kin of glucose/polyol transporters. In different tissues GLUT proteins are expressed in a cell-specific demeanour, show precise kinetic houses, and are developmentally regulated. a number of GLUTs expressed in chondrocytes are regulated by way of hypoxia, hypoxia mimetics, metabolic hormones and pro-inflammatory cytokines. during this multidisciplinary article we assessment the molecular and morphological points of GLUT expression and serve as in chondrocytes and their mesenchymal and embryonic stem mobilephone precursors and suggest key roles for those proteins in glucose sensing and metabolic law in cartilage.
Read or Download Facilitative Glucose Transporters in Articular Chondrocytes: Expression, Distribution and Functional Regulation of GLUT Isoforms by Hypoxia, Hypoxia Mimetics, ... in Anatomy, Embryology and Cell Biology) PDF
Best endocrinology & metabolism books
The interdisciplinary paintings revealing diverse roles in organic procedures of power illnesses has resulted in a brand new box of analysis relating universal molecular and scientific positive factors of persistent ailments. Epidemiological literature indicates an organization among the heritage of metabolic syndrome/diabetes mellitus variety 2 and the danger of constructing a number of cancers.
During this ebook, Harold Morowitz provides a brand new idea at the starting place of lifestyles on the earth 4 billion years in the past. Morowitz postulates that step one towards the starting place of lifestyles was once the spontaneous condensation of amphiphilic molecules to shape vesicles or protocells. This speculation offers a framework for reexamining the emergence of cellularity.
A pragmatic "how to" advisor for a number of tools in metabolism, with a severe and goal dialogue of strengths, boundaries, and applicable purposes of the defined equipment. Edited by means of the winner of the Oskar-Minkowski Prize of the EASD in 2006 scientific trials in populations vulnerable to or with overt diabetes mellitus are being played everywhere in the international to check novel medicines and ways to coping with those illnesses.
This built-in medical reference bargains candid insurance and expert perspectives on thyroid functionality and ailment. conscientiously specified line drawings elucidate the discussions via three well known clinicians. insurance comprises thyroid hormone biosynthesis, laboratory evaluate, unhazardous goiter, hyperthyroidism, thyroid illness in being pregnant, malignant illnesses, thyroiditis, and masses extra
- Painful Diabetic Neuropathy in Clinical Practice
- Energy and protein metabolism and nutrition
- Molecular Nutrition and Genomics: Nutrition and the Ascent of Humankind
- Endocrinology in Clinical Practice, Second Edition
Additional info for Facilitative Glucose Transporters in Articular Chondrocytes: Expression, Distribution and Functional Regulation of GLUT Isoforms by Hypoxia, Hypoxia Mimetics, ... in Anatomy, Embryology and Cell Biology)
The encoded protein consists of 524 amino acid residues and shares 68% similarity and 53% identity with GLUT5, its most closely related isoform in class II of the GLUT/SLC2A gene family. 060 mM). The fructose transporting function of GLUT7 has also been investigated by mutagenesis (Manolescu et al. 2005). GLUT7 did not transport galactose, 2-deoxy-D-glucose, and xylose. Also, glucose transport by GLUT7 was not inhibited by 200 µM phloretin or 100 µM cytochalasin B suggesting that this transporter is insensitive to these inhibitors.
GLUT1 is not detectable in aortic smooth muscle (A) but is moderately expressed in cardiac muscle (B) and skeletal muscle (C). GLUT1 is present in articular chondrocytes (D), amniotic membranes (E) (Wolf and Desoye 1993), placenta (F) (Arnott et al. 1994) and in microvessels (Takakura et al. 1991; Virgintino et al. 1997) in various regions of the central nervous system including cerebral cortex (G), choroid plexus (H) and hippocampus (I). Expression in the choroid plexus was predominantly basolateral (Kurosaki et al.
B Cy to 2 Cl Co Co nt ro l 0 5% O2 Fig. 18 Expression of GLUT1 and its regulation by glucose deprivation, hypoxia and cobalt chloride (CoCl2) in human C-28/I2 chondrocyte-like cells. The GLUT1 protein was detected as an approximately 50 kDa protein in whole cell extracts of C-28/I2 chondrocyte-like cells. In cells incubated for 24 (A) or 48 h (B) in the absence of glucose, an additional band was detected corresponding to approximately 40 kDa.