By Richard I. G. Holt
This ebook is the right source for a direction on endocrinology and diabetes, as a part of USMLE educating, and an on-going significant other in the course of postgraduate medical and clinical learn. This textbook goals to bridge the distance from uncomplicated technological know-how education, via scientific education, to the data required for the early postgraduate years and expert education. The textual content is going past center undergraduate clinical schooling. studying targets, containers, and concluding ‘key issues’ goal to stress the main topics.
The instructing variety and presentation has been bolstered all through, and comprises studying pursuits and “recap” hyperlinks before everything of every bankruptcy that remind the reader of key findings and ideas, whereas cross-referencing makes it effortless to find comparable details quick and successfully. There also are extra case reviews, with particular solutions using thought to practice
The first half strives to create a well informed reader ready for the medical sections.
The moment half keeps a principally organ-based method. The introductory simple technological know-how in those chapters goals to be concise but adequate to appreciate, diagnose and deal with the linked scientific disorders.
The 3rd half on diabetes and weight problems used to be completely new within the final version and those chapters have passed through the best swap here.
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Part 1: Foundations of Endocrinology
1 evaluate of endocrinology
2 phone biology and hormone synthesis
three Molecular foundation of hormone action
four Investigations in endocrinology and diabetes
Part 2: Endocrinology -Biology to scientific Practice
five The hypothalamus and pituitary gland
6 The adrenal gland
7 Reproductive endocrinology
eight The thyroid gland
nine Calcium and metabolic bone disorders
10 Pancreatic and gastrointestinal endocrinology and endocrine neoplasia
Part three: Diabetes and Obesity
eleven evaluate of diabetes
12 kind 1 diabetes
thirteen style 2 diabetes
14 problems of diabetes
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Extra info for Essential Endocrinology and Diabetes
How hormones exert their actions is covered in Chapter 3. 1). The DNA contains the ‘blueprints’, called genes, for synthesizing proteins. There are approximately 30,000 human genes. Each gene serves as the template for generating many copies of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) by a process called gene expression that amplifies the information contained in a single gene into the building blocks for many replica proteins. g. g. the metabolic processes common to all cells. g. g. adenosine mono-, di- or tri-phosphate (according to how many phosphate groups have been added) • Phosphodiester bonds polymerize the nucleotides into a single strand of DNA • Two strands, running in opposite directions, 5 prime (5′; upstream) to 3′ (downstream) assemble as a double helix: ° Hydrogen bonds form between the strands, between the base pairs A–T and G–C • ∼3 billion base pairs comprise the human genome cell surface act as receptors that initiate intracellular signalling, which in turn is reliant on proteins that function as enzymes.
2012 Richard IG Holt and Neil A Hanley. Publlished 2012 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. 28 / Chapter 3: Molecular basis of hormone action Stage 1: Binding of hormone to receptor Hormones act by binding to receptors. 1). 4). 2). g. g. g. g. g. 1 The different classes of hormone receptor. g. the parathyroid hormone (PTH) receptor, can link to different G-proteins, which couple to either adenylate cyclase or phospholipase C (PLC). g. calcitriol stimulating hormone; LH, luteinizing hormone; FSH, follicle-stimulating hormone; ACTH, adrenocorticotrophic hormone; PTHrP, parathyroid hormone-related peptide; PGE2, prostaglandin E2; GHRH, growth hormone releasing hormone; IGF-I, insulin-like growth factor I.
In addition to truncal obesity, there is a very small penis. These features could represent severe growth hormone (GH) deficiency. However, serum GH levels were elevated with undetectable insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) indicative of GH resistance. Laron syndrome was diagnosed due to an inactivating mutation of the gene encoding the GH receptor. Other clinical features include a prominent forehead, depressed nasal bridge and under-development of the mandible. 11). 15). CREB then translocates to the nucleus where it binds to a short palindromic sequence in the regulatory regions of cAMPregulated genes.