By Roderic H. Davison
The impression of Western impact at the later Ottoman Empire and at the improvement of the fashionable Turkish countryside hyperlinks those twelve essays via a popular American student. Roderic Davison attracts from his vast wisdom of Western diplomatic background and Turkish historical past to explain a interval within which the activities of the nice Powers, incipient and emerging nationalisms, and Westernizing reforms formed the future of the Ottoman Empire and the production of the hot Turkish Republic. 11 of the essays have been formerly released in commonly scattered journals and multi-authored volumes. the 1st of those offers a basic survey of Turkish and Ottoman heritage, from early Turkish instances to the top of the Empire. the subsequent essays proceed chronologically from 1774, detailing the various alterations within the nineteenth-century Empire. numerous topics recur. One is the impression of Western rules and associations and the resistance to that impression by means of a few components within the Empire. one other matters the diplomatic strain exerted by way of the good Powers of Europe at the Empire, which amounted from time to time to direct intervention in Ottoman household affairs. Taken jointly, the essays painting a confluence of civilizations in addition to a conflict of cultures. Professor Davison has written an interpretive advent that units out the old tendencies working in the course of the ebook. moreover, he contains a formerly unpublished article at the introduction of the electrical telegraph within the Ottoman Empire to teach how the adoption of a Western technological improve may possibly impact many components of lifestyles. Of specific curiosity to scholars of Ottoman and center East historical past, those essays can also be priceless for everybody keen on modernization in constructing international locations. Davison's interpretations and willing methodological experience additionally shed new mild on a number of points of ecu diplomatic heritage.
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Extra resources for Essays in Ottoman and Turkish History, 1774-1923: The Impact of the West
It also officially called the state "Turkey" for the first time. " To Mustafa Kemal, that is what sovereignty of the people, who were the Turkish nation, meant. Between 1920 and 1922 the government and army of the Grand National Assembly achieved a series of successes, both diplomatic and military, that led to liberation of most of the territory specified in the National Pact. The split between Soviet Russia and the Western powers was used to Turkish advantage, for Russia was willing to give some military aid if the purpose were anti-English or anti-French.
The Russians under Peter the Great had gained Azov, their first appearance on the shores of the Black Sea. Even Venice, a declining power, had been able to seize the Morea. This was the first great Ottoman retreat from Christian lands they had earlier conquered and ruled. It gave a somewhat bitter flavor to the epithet "ever victorious" that was incorporated into the tugra (official signature) of each Ottoman sultan. Though it was weakened from within and without, the Ottoman Empire still was far from total collapse.
British, French, Italian, and Greek occupation forces controlled strategic areas, including istanbul and the straits. The new sultan, Mehmed VI (1918-22), was not popular and hardly of leadership caliber. There was an atmosphere of despair. Meanwhile, Allied statesmen dictated to the Ottoman government the Treaty of Sevres, signed on August 10, 1920. It confirmed the total dismemberment of the Ottoman domain, leaving only central Anatolia under unrestricted Turkish sovereignty and imposing foreign control in various areas, including a Greek zone around izmir.