Download Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies, Volume II: Indian by Karl H. Potter PDF

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By Karl H. Potter

This quantity offers a close resume of present wisdom concerning the classical Indian Philosophical structures of Nyaya and Vaisesika of their prior phases, i.e. overlaying the literature from their inception within the sutras of Gautama and Kanada sooner than the time of Gangesa (about A.D. 1350). The summaries are prepared in relative chronolo-gical order to aid the reader in tracing the improvement of the syncretic school,s concept. students round the world-India, Japan, American-have collaborated within the project. The summaries within the quantity function a device for introducing Indian idea into their classes on difficulties of Philosophy, heritage of suggestion, and so on. and advisor the scholars for extra examine.

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Extra info for Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies, Volume II: Indian Metaphysics and Epistemology: The Tradition of Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika up to Gaṅgeśa

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The "faults" of which Gautama speaks he lists ^s three: attrac- THEORY OF VALUE 33 tion, aversion, and delusion. The last-mentioned is again a significant addition. Kanada speaks primarily of mistakes in attitude, whereas Gautama is concerned about failure of understanding. Gautama also uses the term klesa in a later section to denote wrong attitudes. He explains that klesas are not natural events but are caused by wishful ideas (sämkalpa). These wishful ideas are born from delusions that normal humans are subject to.

C. c. " 12 He also points out that Sextus Empiricus, though he alone, uses as example of inference the Indian stock argument about there being fire on the mountain because there is smoke. The first two of these characteristically Indian allusions—the rope-snake illusion and the quadrilemma—are more Buddhist than Hindu, at least in those early days of which Frenkian speaks. ), though it is of course possible that Sextus thought it up on his own. All in all, we must be sober in our judgments on this exciting possibility of mutual East-West influence; repeated efforts by reputable scholars have found precious little to show any conscious borrowing.

Gautama also uses the term klesa in a later section to denote wrong attitudes. He explains that klesas are not natural events but are caused by wishful ideas (sämkalpa). These wishful ideas are born from delusions that normal humans are subject to. Vatsyâyana gives a striking example when he cites the fact of male attachment to the female body; that the body is attractive is a misconception which he recommends eliminating by paying attention to the displeasing aspects of the body. But to develop an aversion to the body would be equally wrong; what is to be practiced is an attitude of nonattachment, and it is clearly the opinion of Gautama and Vätsyäyana that this attitude can only be cultivated when things are seen as they really are and not otherwise.

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