By Thomas Kuehn
Historians of the center East within the lengthy 19th century have frequently thought of empire-building the guard of eu powers. This e-book revises this photo by way of exploring how the Ottomans re-conquered and governed huge components of present-day Yemen among 1849 and the tip of global conflict I, after greater than centuries of independence less than neighborhood dynasties. Drawing on quite a lot of resources and on contemporary scholarship on empire and colonialism Empire, Islam, and Politics of Difference indicates how the suggestions and practices of Ottoman imperial rule have been formed during the encounters among Ottoman officers, their ecu opponents, and native groups. the result's a clean examine the character of governance within the overdue Ottoman Empire extra quite often.
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Additional resources for Empire, Islam, and Politics of Difference (Ottoman Empire and Its Heritage)
3, 1654–1703. 29 Geography In this study, “Yemen” refers to a vast territory in the southwestern corner of the Arabian Peninsula bordering on the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean. Not entirely coterminuous with the territory of today’s Republic of Yemen, it extends from ʿAsīr in the north to the Gulf of Aden in the south and from the shores of the Red Sea in the west to the fringes of the Rubʿ al-Khālī desert in the east. Large portions of this area were part of the Ottoman Empire from 1538 to 1636, and again from 1849–73 to 1919.
Moreover, to an important degree, they institutionalized the difference and perceived inferiority of the local population by leaving them outside the purview of political practices and administrative regulations that were theoretically universalist or empire-wide in nature: be it censuses, cadastral surveys and conscription in the case of Yemen, the system of social classification in the case of Russian Turkestan, or the right to participate in the democratic politics of the metropole in the case of British India, the Dutch East Indies, or French Indo-China.
While adaptability toward the political and economic conditions of newly-conquered territories had always formed an important characteristic of Ottoman provincial government, these adaptations cannot be understood simply in terms of continuations of earlier forms of imperial governance. Rather they were shaped and deployed in contrast to the principles and practices of Tanẓīmāt governance that the central government sought to implement throughout the Ottoman lands and indeed succeeded in implementing in large parts of Ottoman Europe, Anatolia, Syria, and Iraq.