Download El milenio huérfano. Ensayos para una nueva cultura política by BOAVENTURA DE SOUSA SANTOS PDF

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By BOAVENTURA DE SOUSA SANTOS

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Taking Advantage of Variety Some consequences for exploring, both positive and negative, are present naturally: variety, for example. We’ve seen how even little changes of scenery can be refreshing. Riding in a moving vehicle is reinforcing for those with good vision. Dogs get a kick out of the variety of scents to be sniffed on a short walk. On the other hand, familiarity is reinforcing under other circumstances, and exploring can mean leaving what is not only familiar but also safe. You don’t find wild mice exploring in broad daylight but rather at night when they’re at less risk; if their existing foraging locations fail them, they must seek new ones.

Ultimately, as we saw in chapter 1, variability itself became a reinforceable characteristic of behavior. Even planaria can learn about signals—ways to know when consequences are available. Add to that the ability to tolerate delays so consequences that aren’t immediate can still be effective. Add generalization, the ability to respond similarly to events that are similar—something insects can do. Add the ability to form concrete categories like “berries”—not so different from generalization—and then abstract ones that still have something in common—“red”—and then arbitrary categories linked only by common consequences.

To get delicious grains, the pigeons were able to produce sequences of eight that were consistently different from their last fifty sequences. And they weren’t accomplishing this feat by memorizing. 18 Can people do the same? First we have to overcome misconceptions of what “random” means mathematically. Neuringer rewarded participants for producing what they thought were random sequences of digits, then ranked the sequences on a number of statistical criteria and found that his volunteers did rather poorly.

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