By Carl A. Hanson
"Economy and Society in Baroque Portugal, 1668 1703 " used to be first released in 1981. Minnesota Archive versions makes use of electronic expertise to make long-unavailable books once more available, and are released unaltered from the unique college of Minnesota Press editions.The past due 17th century in Portugal was once a interval of obvious calm, and few historians have given it a lot consciousness. Portugal's Golden Age of globally growth had made sixteenth-century Lisbon an exceptional advertisement heart, yet different eu international locations with extra complicated economies passed Portugal's success, and through the 17th century agricultural, financial, and political difficulties all contributed to Portugal's decline. In 1668, on the end of a protracted struggle with Spain to revive Portuguese sovereignty, Pedro II started a reign of 38 years, first as regent for a feckless brother advert after 1683 as king. The historical past of Portugal in the course of his reign is the topic of this book.Carl A. Hanson appears at this rather unexamined period and unearths, at the back of the facade of baroque calm, refined yet dramatic shifts within the socio-economic foundations of the age. with a purpose to deal with financial melancholy Pedro's govt hearkened to enthusiastic studies of Colbert's mercantile regulations in France, and attempted to motivate the growth of family production. associated with those efforts have been makes an attempt to decrease the inquisitorial persecution of latest Christian retailers. Hanson explores the explanations of anti-Semitism, greed and sophistication conflict that underlay the persecution and describes the efforts of an eloquent Jesuit, Father Antonio Vieira, to guard the hot Christians from the worst excesses of the Inquisition.The triumph of the Inquisition, and therefore of the demonstrated social order, and the failure of Portugal's test in mercantilism coincided with a brand new wave of commodity-borne prosperity. After 1690, elevated exports of Brazilian gold, tobacco, hides, and sugar, and of Port wine replaced Portugal's monetary prestige. With the signing of the Anglo- Portuguese treaty of Methuen in 1703, Portugal entered a gilded if no longer golden age. but, as Hanson makes transparent, the recent prosperity used to be misleading, for Portugal used to be to slide into more and more based relationships with the extra complicated economies in particular England's which absorbed nice amounts of Luso-Atlantic commodities in trade for its personal manufactures. And, at domestic, the effective social order, not threatened through a mercantile classification, used to be to discover protection lower than an more and more absolutist govt. The reign of Pedro II is critical, then, as a interval of transition whilst, for the 1st time, the rules of the previous order have been threatened. The baroque facade survived however the edifice itself had all started to crumble."
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Extra resources for Economy and Society in Baroque Portugal, 1668–1703
68 The great complex at Tibäes was in the heart of the Benedictine monastic establishment, which had grown up in the populous regions of northern Portuga1. 69 The abbey at Tibäes controlled extensive properties, including its original couto, a land grant dating from the twelfth century. The Benedictine friars of Tibäes exercised privileges of jurisdiction and exploitation typical of those granted by Portuguese rulers from the ninth through the thirteenth centuries, the great era of couto concessions.
Such great diversity is perhaps not surprising, given the overwhelming number of people (at least eighty-six percent of the population) belonging to the third estate.! This great m'Üority can be conveniently divided into two categories, the people of the town and the people of the country. Of those groups living in the Portuguese countryside, by far the largest and most important were the peasant classes. The land on which they labored, as was true most everywhere in Europe before the advent of industrial capitalism, constituted the most essential asset of the national economy.
Yet it was not penetrated by the spirit of revolt. No doubt the possibility of emigrating overseas and the income which came back from there, as also the [post-1690] boom in agricultural exports, kept it quiet. 25 The Nobility Up to this point, discussion of the social groups has been confined to mention of the nobility, the dergy, and the common people. None of these three groups was homogeneous, and each contained numerous subdivisions. These subsidiary groups appeared and even disappeared at different times and often struggled more fiercely with their own brethren for position and privilege than they did with members of different estates.