By Paul Essabal
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In 1543, the Ottoman fleet seemed off the coast of France to bombard and lay siege to the town of great. The operation, lower than the command of Admiral Barbarossa, got here in keeping with a request from François I of France for the aid of Sultan Süleyman the impressive in France’s fight opposed to Charles V, the Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain.
Ottoman naval know-how underwent a change lower than the rule of thumb of Sultan Selim III. New kinds of crusing warships comparable to - and three-decked galleons, frigates and corvettes started to dominate the Ottoman fleet, rendering the galley-type oared ships out of date. this era observed technological ideas reminiscent of the adoption of the systematic copper sheathing of the hulls and bottoms of Ottoman warships from 1792-93 onwards and the development of the 1st dry dock within the Golden Horn.
Turkey is either an previous and a brand new nation. whereas the Turks were dwelling in Anatolia for the final millennium, the rustic has passed through wide Westernization because the finish of the 18th century. despite the fact that, in terms of Turkey, culture has now not arrested modernization; really, the normal has tailored itself to the trendy.
The background of Jerusalem as characteristically depicted is the essential background of clash and strife, of ethnic pressure, and of incompatible nationwide narratives and visions. it's also a background of dramatic adjustments and moments, the most radical ones being the substitute of the Ottoman regime with British rule in December 1917.
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Thus, while control of Edessa was critical to the Roman hold on the region, it was no less a key to any westward successes by Rome’s Persian rivals. That Rome was able to pursue its ambitions east of the Euphrates for so long is in large part due to the continued loyalty of the leaders and people of Edessa – a loyalty which may, ironically, have been sealed by the emergence of the powerful Sassanid regime in 226. The Asian empire’s Zoroastrian rulers could be even less tolerant of Christianity than the emperors, and even at this early date Edessa had a sizable Christian community.
Claudius Fronto, whose career inscription lists him as leg. Augg. pr. pr. exercitus legionarii | et auxilior. per Orientem in Armeniam | et Osrhoenam et Anthemusiam ducto | rum, leg. Augg. legioni primae Minervi | ae in exspeditionem Parthicam deducen | dae. 1377 = Dessau 1098, ll. 14–18; cf. Lucian, Hist. Conscr. 21) It was surely Fronto’s armies that besieged Edessa, possibly being admitted to the city by partisans who also helped dispatch the Parthian occupying force (Lucian Hist. Conscr. 12; HA Verus 7).
This event is placed in the Year of Abraham 2130, therefore some 24 years after the death of Abgar in 116. Ma nu is replaced by Wael, the son of Sahru, for a two-year reign beginning in 2154 of the Abrahamic era – this is the only Wael mentioned by the chronicle, and certainly the one who issued the coins in honor of the Parthian king with Syriac inscriptions W L MLK (Chron. Zuq. 125/ 94). The chronicle does not, however, say that Ma nu had died; rather, he ‘went over to Roman territory’ (BT RWMY – Chron.