By C. van der Linde
Writing this e-book may were most unlikely with no assistance from yes associations and individuals. For a gas-producing and oil-processing kingdom just like the Netherlands, there has been strangely little or no, publicly on hand, learn fabric. Public libraries' collections contained, with a undeniable measure of inconsistency, little of the extra specialized assets. i'd for that reason prefer to show my gratitude in the direction of Royal Dutch Shell, and particularly the library employees within the Hague, for permitting me to exploit the company's library, thanking them for his or her tips to find and delivering the necessary facts. i'm additionally thankful for the monetary suggestions of the 'Nederlandse organisatie voor wetenschappelijk onderzoek' (NWO) and the school of legislations of the collage of Leiden. They supplied the monetary potential to paintings a (crucial) month within the rather well built library of the Oxford Institute for strength experiences. i'm indebted to the workers of the Oxford Institute for power stories, and especially to Robert Mabro and Jeremy Turk, for his or her reviews, aid, and friendship. After I spent a month within the Institute in July 1989, i used to be in a position to go back for 2 five-month classes in 1990 and 1991. For either classes, the Oxford Institute and the Leiden legislations college supplied me with the required capability. i might additionally prefer to show distinctive gratitude to a few those that were an outstanding help and provided me with priceless reviews at a number of levels of the study.
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Extra info for Dynamic International Oil Markets: Oil Market Developments and Structure 1860–1990
This was a natural step, since they owned the basic feedstocks and had large quantities of the necessary investment capital, and also since the chemical industry uses processing patterns much like those they were familiar with from petroleum refining. S. petrochemical plants, while petrochemicals accounted for over 60 percent of the value of all organic chemicals produced m the United States. • M. 106. 110 111 Ibid, p. 106-107. The oil companies began entering the competitive fuel industries in the early 1960s.
90 34 Dynamic International Oil Markets advantages. e. labour, energy, materials, semi-finished products; international communication and transport costs; investment incentives and disincentives; trade barriers; infrastructural provisions; economic system and government policy; and the institutional framework for resource allocation. e. e. information, organization, access to inputs, capital, risk diversification. Internalization-incentive advantages are generated by market imperfections. The incentive to internalise depends on the relationship of four sets of factors: 1) industry-specific factors; 2) region-specific factors; 3) nation-specific factors; and 4) firm-specific factors.
Test wells must be drilled. If oil deposits are found, the commercial viability of the well must be established. The commercial viability of the well is based on the quality and quantity of the recoverable oil in relation to the exploration and exploitation costs and the expected price. 87 Crude oil differs in quality. This is expressed in the crude's gravity and the impurities it contains. The gravity of a crude is generally measured according to the American Petroleum Institute's (API) grading system.