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By Ali Resul Usul

This publication examines the impression of ecu political conditionality at the strategy of democratization in Turkey over a twenty yr interval. utilising theoretical and conceptual techniques to the difficulty of ecu conditionality, the writer compares the case of Turkey to that of different eu international locations. Arguing that Turkey turned susceptible to the ecu conditionality whilst it utilized for club in 1987, he exhibits how the political reforms demanded of Turkey weren't totally performed because the european had no longer in essence approved Turkey as an reputable candidate in this interval. the ecu has began to exert actual ‘active leverage’ in view that Turkey used to be declared an authentic candidate in 1999, and the writer explores how those stipulations have exerted a good effect on democratic consolidation in Turkey. even though, its effectiveness during this regard has lowered to an important quantity because of a few difficulties that experience persisted to stay primary in EU-Turkey kinfolk. This finished research of Turkey-EU political family members and democratization areas the case of Turkey inside a global context. As such, it will likely be of curiosity not just to these learning Turkish politics, executive and democracy, yet somebody operating within the quarter of diplomacy and the ecu.

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Additional resources for Democracy in Turkey: The Impact of EU Political Conditionality (Routledge Studies in Middle Eastern Politics)

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However, Rueschemeyer and Stephens (1997) demonstrated that this result is not as clear-cut as was previously accepted. While they found evidence of the positive effect of British colonialism in North America and the Antipodes, the British colonial administration openly opposed further democratization (for example the planned extension of suffrage) in the West Indies. The Carter administration, for example, which proclaimed a policy of democratic promotion at home and abroad, imposed democracy on the Dominican Republic, while simultaneously undermining democracy in Iran.

This underestimation might partly be due to the international positions of the INGOs at the time. However, the number and significance of international non-governmental organizations in the international and domestic area has been continuously on the increase. As far as democracy and human rights are concerned, parallel to the increasing saliency of the INGOs in world politics, analytical studies of how these organizations exert an impact on domestic regimes have started to increase in number. For example, the role of Amnesty International (Brysk 1993; Bouandel 1997: 69–95; Keck and Sikkink 1998: 103–10; Clark 2001) and Charter 77 in Eastern Europe during the Cold War (Chilton 1995) can be considered as good examples as far as the effect of transnational non-governmental organizations on the regime change of an authoritarian country is concerned.

In the age of increasing speed of the process of globalization, the increasing influence of the demonstration effect shapes to some extent the political and non-political selections and desires of peoples. The critical point in the ‘demonstration effect’ is related to ‘how an almost universal wish to imitate a way of life associated with the liberal capitalist democracies of the core regions (the wish for modernity) may undermine the social and institutional foundations of any regime perceived as incompatible with these aspirations’ (Whitehead 2001a: 21).

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