By Michael Aceto, Jeffrey P. Williams
"Contact Englishes of the jap Caribbean" focuses, through fundamental linguistic fieldwork, at the underrepresented and ignored quarter of the Anglophone japanese Caribbean. the subsequent islands are incorporated: The Virgin Islands (USA & British), Anguilla, Barbuda, Dominica, St. Lucia, Carriacou, Barbados, Trinidad, and Guyana. that allows you to be as inclusive as attainable, the contiguous components of the Bahamas and the Turks and Caicos islands (often thought of a part of North American Englishes) also are integrated. Papers during this quantity discover all facets of language examine, together with syntax, phonology, historic linguistics, dialectology, sociolinguistics, ethnography, and function. it's going to be of curiosity not just to creolists but in addition to linguists, anthropologists, sociologists and educators both within the Caribbean itself or those that paintings with schoolchildren of West Indian descent.
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Additional resources for Contact Englishes of the Eastern Caribbean (Varieties of English Around the World)
2. 1 The status of bi˜n and dId as tense auxiliaries According to Holm (1982: ix), bi˜n and dId are preverbal markers that indicate anterior tense, the former used by older Bahamians and the latter by younger Bahamians. This, I contend is not entirely accurate. The markers bi˜n and dId are both used in simple past and anterior contexts (see examples below) and, as a young native speaker of Bahamian, I am aware that bi˜n is used by younger speakers as well. (1) aI dIId ª˜l so: g~d (LM. ” (3) wIn wi˜ bi˜˜n k%mIn ju˜ dIn wf˜] wf˜k (LP.
A close examination of the distribution of what are traditionally classiªed as modals in Bahamian reveals that they may be subdivided on the basis of syntactic distribution. Let us take, for example, the modal m%si˜. Like other modals, m%si˜ expresses a speaker’s notion of reality about an event or state. However, a close syntactic examination of m%si˜ reveals that it is distinct from all other modals in Bahamian. 1 The semantics of m% %si˜˜ The sentences below are identical except for the presence or absence of m%si˜.
25) a. In example (a), the bare verb expresses a state resulting from completion of an event, at the time of speech. However, when g6 is inserted in example (b), it is perceived that there is a change in the speaker’s attitude toward the reality of the event. The event is perceived to be an expectation of the speaker, and unrealized at the time of speech. Another bit of evidence in support of the fact that g6 functions as an irrealis modal, is its use in past contexts. In the example below, it is clear that the informant is referring to a past time, since the subject of the conversation (iy “he”) has been dead for many years prior to the time of speech.