By Andrew Spencer
In such a lot languages we discover 'little phrases' which resemble an entire note, yet which can't stand all alone. in its place they need to 'lean on' a neighbouring observe, just like the 'd, 've and unstressed 'em of Kim'd've helped'em ('Kim may have helped them'). those are clitics, and they're present in lots of the world's languages. In English the clitic kinds seem within the similar position within the sentence that the entire kind of the be aware would seem in yet in lots of languages clitics obey fairly separate principles of placement. This booklet is the 1st advent to clitics, delivering an entire precis in their houses, their makes use of, the explanations why they're of curiosity to linguists and a few of the theoretical ways which have been proposed for them. The booklet describes a complete host of clitic structures and provides information from over a hundred languages.
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Additional resources for Clitics: An Introduction
In Polish and Latvian the particle comes at the beginning of the sentence, in Japanese and Chinese it comes at the end of the sentence (we discuss the Chinese case in Chapter 4). Finnish has an interrogative clitic, ko/kö. Word order in Finnish is very free, but the word or phrase which is the focus of a question is placed at the beginning of the clause. The interrogative clitic attaches to that word, irrespective of the word’s class. Thus, the ko/kö marker is a 2P clitic. ) Yes-no questions have a special status with respect to meaning because we can focus the question on diﬀerent constituents of the clause.
Their syntax is diﬀerent from that of full words, and even socalled simple clitics, such as those of German, do not appear in exactly the same position as the corresponding full personal pronoun: German clitic pronouns cannot occur clause-initially, especially if they are enclitic. 29 the functions of clitics 30 There are important respects in which the clitic pronouns surveyed above diﬀer from aﬃxes. A feature of the Serbian/Croatian and German clitics is that they don’t select the class of the base they attach to, and can thus take words of any category as their host (that is, they show promiscuous attachment).
ACC’, we see that they diﬀer in various ways. For example, the clitic has a short vowel which can never bear tone, unlike njû which has a long vowel with a falling tone (signalled by the circumflex accent). 2. This eﬀectively means that both clitic auxiliaries and clitic pronouns in Serbian/Croatian are enclitic. CL loves Jovan (28) It is then clear that clitic forms lack the phonological autonomy of a full word. Further evidence of this is given in (29, 30). Example (29a) shows that je can never occur in isolation, unlike its stressed counterpart, njû (29b), and that it can never be coordinated with another pronominal form, whether a word or a clitic, (30a).