By Michael Roden
A functional "how to" consultant for a number of equipment in metabolism, with a severe and target dialogue of strengths, boundaries, and applicable purposes of the defined methods.
Edited by means of the winner of the Oskar-Minkowski Prize of the EASD in 2006
scientific trials in populations prone to or with overt diabetes mellitus are being played all over the global to check novel medicines and techniques to dealing with those ailments. over the past decade, new tools and strategies were brought – and are being built extra – that facilitate tracking of metabolism or even prognosis of convinced defects in human metabolism. whereas a few of these tools are limited to investigate amenities, others are already utilized in scientific perform. the right kind useful use of those equipment calls for wisdom of the character of the strategies and their scientific relevance.
Clinical Diabetes examine: equipment and Techniques offers summaries of tested state-of-the art-techniques and introduces the hot applied sciences, comparing their power in scientific diabetes examine. One part compares the efficacy of all metabolic exams that degree insulin motion. one other part describes tools that let quantification of complete physique and intracellular metabolic fluxes correct to diabetes study. the ultimate part specializes in the making plans and pitfalls of scientific reports within the box of metabolism. each one bankruptcy in the course of the booklet combines the theoretical foundation of the procedure with functional recommendations. There are additional chapters at the layout of medical trials and moral issues.
The book is well timed in view of the striking improvement of the equipment and strategies with their program to figuring out the pathophysiology of diabetes, insulin resistance syndromes, weight problems, and the metabolic results of therapy.
Clinical Diabetes learn: equipment and Techniques is of significant relevance for researchers (from scholars and post-docs to crucial investigators) within the box of human metabolism, scientific endocrinologists and diabetologists who're fascinated about scientific studies.Content:
Chapter 1 fundamentals of scientific Metabolic learn (pages 1–5): Michael Roden
Chapter 2 equipment for the overview of ??Cell functionality In Vivo (pages 7–26): Andrea Mari and Giovanni Pacini
Chapter three review of Insulin Sensitivity from Steady?State and Dynamic assessments (pages 27–41): Giovanni Pacini and Andrea Mari
Chapter four Glucose Clamp innovations (pages 43–76): Attila Brehm and Michael Roden
Chapter five equipment of evaluate of Counterregulation to Hypoglycaemia (pages 77–103): Pratik Choudhary, Ming Ming Teh and Stephanie A. Amiel
Chapter 6 Glucose Kinetics: size of Flux premiums (pages 105–124): Jerry Radziuk and Susan Pye
Chapter 7 Xenobiotics as Probes of Carbohydrate Metabolism (pages 125–137): Bernard Landau
Chapter eight Tracing Hepatic Glucose and Glycogen Fluxes with 2H2O (pages 139–149): John G. Jones
Chapter nine Lipid Kinetics (pages 151–168): John M. Miles and Robert H. Nelson
Chapter 10 Protein and Amino Acid Kinetics (pages 169–191): Stephen F. Previs, Danielle A. Gilge and Nadia Rachdaoui
Chapter eleven evaluation of Metabolic Fluxes by means of In Vivo MR Spectroscopy (pages 193–222): Martin Krssak and Michael Roden
Chapter 12 Positron Emission Tomography in Metabolic study (pages 223–235): Pirjo Nuutila, Patricia Iozzo and Juhani Knuuti
Chapter thirteen review of physique fats content material and Distribution (pages 237–263): Martin Krssak
Chapter 14 Tissue Biopsies in Diabetes examine (pages 265–288): Kurt Hojlund, Michael Gaster and Henning Beck?Nielsen
Chapter 15 evaluation of Vascular functionality (pages 289–310): Johannes Pleiner and Michael Wolzt
Chapter sixteen Cardiovascular Autonomic functionality checking out (pages 311–324): Dan Ziegler
Chapter 17 Nerve functionality checking out (pages 325–340): Haris M. Rathur and Andrew J. M. Boulton
Chapter 18 Kidney functionality (pages 341–355): Sally M. Marshall
Chapter 19 strategies for the research of the attention in Diabetes (pages 357–366): Ayad Al?Bermani and Roy Taylor
Chapter 20 fundamentals of Molecular Genetics: classes from kind 2 Diabetes (pages 367–376): Leif Groop and Charlotte Ling
Chapter 21 stable scientific perform: buddy or Foe? (pages 377–385): Christian Joukhadar and Markus Muller
Chapter 22 Statistical concerns in Diabetes Trials (pages 387–393): Irene M. Stratton and Carole A. Cull
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Extra info for Clinical Diabetes Research: Methods and Techniques
05 U/kg) dose of insulin (Gelding et al. 1994). Conclusion This chapter has described the most common, easily available methods of assessing insulin sensitivity both from steady-state and dynamic tests. The presented approaches are simpler than the gold standard glucose clamp and do not require complicated calculations, except for the minimal model which has nonetheless come to be routinely used. We tried to provide a quick reference manual for the performance of the tests and data analysis, highlighting both the advantages and the possible limitations.
The final aim was to make the investigator consider the most appropriate test for his/her study, depending on the kind of research, the type of subjects, the available resources and the expected interpretation of the results. References Amatuzio DS, Stutzman FL, Vanderbilt MJ, Nesbitt S (1953) Interpretation of the rapid intravenous glucose tolerance test in normal individuals and in mild diabetes mellitus J Clin Invest 32, 428–435 Baron AD, Kolterman OG, Bell J, Mandarino LJ, Olefsky JM (1985) Rates of noninsulin-mediated glucose uptake are elevated in type II diabetic subjects J Clin Invest 76, 1782–1788 REFERENCES 39 Beard JC, Bergman RN, Ward WK, Porte D Jr (1986) The insulin sensitivity index in nondiabetic man: Correlation between clamp-derived and IVGTT-derived values Diabetes 35, 362–369 Bergman RN (1989) Toward physiological understanding of glucose tolerance: Minimal-model approach Diabetes 38, 1512–1527 Bergman RN, Finegood DT, Ader M (1985) Assessment of insulin sensitivity in vivo Endocrine Reviews 6, 45–86 Bergman RN, Ider YZ, Bowden CR, Cobelli C (1979) Quantitative estimation of insulin sensitivity Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 236, E667–E677 Bergman RN, Phillips LS, Cobelli C (1981) Physiologic evaluation of factors controlling glucose tolerance in man J Clin Invest 68, 1456–1467 Bergman RN, Prager R, Volund A, Olefsky JM (1987) Equivalence of the insulin sensitivity index in man derived by the minimal model method and the euglycemic glucose clamp J Clin Invest 79, 790–800 Berson SA, Yalow RS (1970) Insulin ‘antagonists’ and insulin resistance In: M Ellenberg, H Rifkin (Eds) Diabetes Mellitus: Theory and Practice, McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 388–423 Best JD, Kahn SE, Ader M et al.
G. Moller 1993, Reaven & Laws 1999, Krentz 2002, Porte et al. 2003, DeFronzo et al. 2004) and stress its possible role in the development of vascular diseases, which is the major clinical concern. Insulin resistance is also associated directly or indirectly with diabetes and a wide range of other diseases and may arise at any time during the course of life. A correct and reliable quantification of insulin resistance is clearly important for diagnosis, therapy, prognosis, monitoring of the follow-up and the evaluation of drugs.