Download Cardiovascular Endocrinology:: Shared Pathways and Clinical by Vivian Fonseca PDF

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By Vivian Fonseca

Over the earlier few many years, heart problems and diabetes have emerged as significant public illnesses, either as distinctive medical entities and as comorbid stipulations. hence, the fields of vascular biology and endocrinology are operating extra heavily now than ever prior to. With chapters through popular specialists, Cardiovascular Endocrinology: Shared Pathways and medical Crossroads emphasizes the enormous physiological interrelationships and medical correlations among the specialties of cardiovascular drugs and endocrinology.

Offering a wealth of data, Cardiovascular Endocrinology: Shared Pathways and medical Crossroads provides a variety of insights, together with a singular view of the hormonal legislation of the vascular procedure and the disruption of the nitric oxide signaling procedure. It additionally addresses the position of fatty acids and cytokines within the improvement of this challenge. Importantly, this special name additionally presents a cutting-edge replace at the value of different hormones resembling thyroid hormone and steroids, in addition to the pathophysiology of heart problems and controversies surrounding using hormone substitute therapy.

In all, Cardiovascular Endocrinology: Shared Pathways and medical Crossroads is a first-of-its-kind identify that discusses and summarizes vital scientific themes in cardiology and endocrinology. It deals clinicians and researchers an incredible source for navigating the more and more interrelated pathways of cardiovascular and endocrinologic problems. The authors speak about a number vital matters from epidemiology to bench study to translation of this examine to scientific practice.

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However, larger clinical trials failed to demonstrate any beneficial therapeutic effect of vitamins C and E in diabetic patients with cardiovascular disease (190–194). Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) eNOS is responsible for most of the vascular NO produced. Normal function of eNOS requires dimerization of the enzyme, the availability of the substrate, L-arginine, and the essential cofactor, BH4 (80).

Fig. 2. Diagram demonstrating the factors and co-factors that lead to decreased NO bioavailability (128). Source: Redrawn from Yang & Ming (128). 40 Nossaman et al. L-Arginine Deficiency “Conditionally essential nutrients” (CENs) are organic compounds that are ordinarily produced by the body in amounts sufficient to meet its physiological requirements. However, in stressful conditions, such as cardiovascular disease, biosynthesis may be inadequate. Under these circumstances, these CENs become essential nutrients, comparable to vitamins.

Production of reactive-oxygen species (ROS) is increased in patients with diabetes, especially in diabetics with poor glycemic control. The increase in ROS is associated with a perturbation of signaling pathways (151–153). Multiple protein kinases including Ser/Thr kinase Akt/PKB (protein kinase B), cAMPdependent protein kinase, and the AMP-activated protein kinase, activate eNOS by phosphorylation of Ser-1177 in response to various stimuli (Fig. 2). For example, in endothelial cells there is a transient increase in Ser-1177 phosphorylation associated with a concomitant decrease in Thr-495 phosphorylation during vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling (154), whereas in endothelial cells during protein kinase C signaling, inhibition of eNOS activity occurs via phosphorylation of Thr-495 and dephosphorylation of Ser-1177.

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