By Wilhelm Kuckshinrichs, Jürgen-Friedrich Hake
Carbon trap and garage applied sciences (CCS) are relocating from test towards advertisement functions at a quick speed, pushed by way of pressing call for for carbon mitigation suggestions. This publication examines the capability function of CCS from 4 views: know-how improvement, financial competitiveness, environmental and defense affects, and social popularity. IEK-STE of Forschungszentrum Juelich offers this interdisciplinary research on CCS, in response to tools of built-in know-how review. Following an introductory bankruptcy by way of editor Wilhelm Kuckshinrichs, half I of the booklet surveys the prestige of carbon trap applied sciences, and assesses the potential of study and improvement of functions which are beneficial at scales required for significant mitigation. Transportation, usage and Environmental facets of CO2 obtain chapter-length remedies, and the part concludes with an exam of secure geological garage of CO2 in line with the instance of the Ketzin pilot web site, now not faraway from Berlin. half II covers fiscal and Societal views. the 1st bankruptcy discusses using CCS within the strength quarter, reading charges linked to electrical energy iteration and CO2 mitigation at the foundation of technology-specific fee and technique parameters, in addition to a merit-order representation of the potential implications of CCS amenities for power bills. Later chapters define the prices of CCS program in strength- and CO2-intensive industries; learn procedure features of CCS infrastructures, displaying that the infrastructure price functionality depends upon the ratio of fastened to variable expenditures, in addition to at the spatial distribution of CO2 assets and garage amenities; interpret cross-sector carbon mitigation recommendations and their affects at the power and CO2 stability; and speak about know-how and information of CCS, attitudes in the direction of it, and the way the hazards and merits of CCS are perceived. half III discusses the Framework for power and weather coverage, with chapters on reputation and adoption of CCS coverage in Germany, and the european, and an review of overseas cooperation in aid of CCS. the ultimate bankruptcy summarizes the principal arguments, discusses the aptitude function of carbon seize and usage as a part of a German transformation method, and extrapolates the findings to eu and foreign contexts.
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Additional info for Carbon Capture, Storage and Use: Technical, Economic, Environmental and Societal Perspectives
3 P. Markewitz and R. g. ). g. blast furnace, cement), several refinery processes produce a large number of products. Thermal energy is required for the main process groups, namely distillation, conversion (cracking, coking, reforming), and the post-treatment and refining of products. 5). In some refineries, the necessary process steam is produced in power plants where CCS technologies can be used, as discussed in the previous sections. In addition to an improved efficiency of the furnaces, improved thermal integration, better process control and CHP utilization, the use of carbon capture processes (integrated in the refinery process) has also been discussed as a further mitigation measure for the refinery process (De Coninck and Mikunda 2010).
2009) indicate that power plant operation with air or pure oxygen is theoretically possible. g. CO2 compressor and conditioning unit, air separation unit), (Irons et al. g. induced draught fans). No alteration of the heat exchange surfaces is necessary according to Irons et al. (2007b). It can be assumed that the flue gas desulfurization unit must be modified in order to achieve the levels of purity required for pipeline transport. Within the framework of the Australian research project CALLIDE, an existing coal-fired power plant (site: Callide; 120 MWel) is being retrofitted with oxyfuel technology.
2011b). As a countermove, around 12 GW coalfired power plant capacity will be taken off the grid by 2020 due to obsolescence. In the current scenario framework for the Network Development Plan approved by the Federal Network Agency for Electricity, Gas, Telecommunications, Post and Railway (Bundesnetzagentur) (Bundesnetzagentur 2011), it is assumed that coal-fired power plants will be further expanded by 2022. Depending on the scenario, additional capacity ranges between 11 and 20 GW. These capacities in particular are extremely relevant for retrofitting with carbon capture technology.