By David Gillen, David Levinson
The 17 chapters during this booklet, which advanced from a convention on measuring the contributions of ITS backed through the California division of Transportation in February 2002, learn the prices and merits of ITS in an financial and company coverage context. part 1 examines the wide topic of the way and what ITS contributes to the financial system and the way one makes a company case for ITS. part 2 comprises 3 chapters on ITS purposes in mass transit. part three explores ITS purposes within the automobile/highway process. part four considers integrative concerns together with how ITS is perceived and the way it may be located to enhance floor transportation. This quantity may be particularly important to researchers and coverage makers operating in transportation, transportation engineering, and the industrial research of transportation platforms.
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Berkeley may have been the first to cite the early development of the automobile as the classic example of this first stage innovation. The automobile went faster than horses. The second stage of innovation is when new uses are found for the innovation. New uses were found for the “horseless carriage,” such as those performed by trucks and buses. Benefit Measures, Values, and Future Impacts of ITS 33 In the third stage of the innovation, the structure of the surrounding system, in this case the city, has adapted to the car so it can perform at still lower costs and increasing gain to individuals, at least in terms of the costs they currently confront and perceive when making their travel decisions.
Evaluation can also be done at any point along the life cycle from planning to termination, for purposes of monitoring the deployment to see if it is meeting performance targets. The same BCA framework serves all of these purposes. The intent of the following examples is to illustrate the information requirements for BCA and to show how the data and performance parameters are used in the analysis. None of the examples offer a complete analysis of a project, but together they seek to highlight steps in the evaluation where critical information typically is missing.
Thus, as we approach the third stage of innovation, transportation planners need to think in terms of new regional structures and boundaries. More and more, we are living in regional cities—in regional places—and it is the region, transcending old urban area boundaries, that functions in the global economic landscape. Our new economies are regional, and regional boundaries don’t necessarily conform to state or national boundaries. , data entry and other back office functions). That’s why there can be parts of a state or nation that are succeeding economically, and others that are failing economically.