By William Sweet
At the present time, while systematic philosophy - and cause itself - are challenged either outdoors of and inside philosophy, is it nonetheless attainable to do metaphysics? This quantity presents a vast viewpoint on modern methods to the character and the elemental questions of metaphysics. Drawing on students from continental Europe, Asia, Canada, the us, and nice Britain, and representing numerous philosophical cultures and traditions, this quantity surveys and extends paintings in metaphysics and its implications for broader philosophical matters (e.g., in ethics and social philosophy, in arithmetic and good judgment, and in epistemology). It additionally addresses such questions because the position of background and historicity in project metaphysics, the character of metaphysics, the concern of metaphysics over epistemology, and the demanding situations of empiricism and postmodernism.
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Extra resources for Approaches to Metaphysics (Studies in Philosophy and Religion)
9 [1051a31]. Hence ens is the proper object [proprium obiectum] of the intellect, and thus is the primary intelligible [primum intelligibile], in the way that sound is the primary audible... 18 Thus, the notion of “a being” is crucial, and everything which gets into our minds gets into them through it. It cannot be envisaged as the fruit of intellectual comparison. 19 Moreover, Thomas has not forgotten his doctrine of analogy of being in declaring “ens” the first intelligible. Rather, he explicitly says that the first of all items predicated, viz.
The third argument from Scotus is: … the good, which is a property [passio] of ens, is not subjectively in the soul; but the subject is not of lesser entity than the property. [132A] Capreolus replies: … the good is a property of real being and [being] in act [entis realis et in actu], but not [of being] in its entire breadth. ad 4: mathematicals as such are not good, but they have applied to them the ratio “ens”: they are entia secundum rationem. Scotus’s fourth argument: … substance more really agrees with accident than a chimera; which is clear, because quite apart from every act of the intellect, the first two [mentioned] are beings and the third is not a being [non ens].
The first argument of Aureol is based on the problem of “addition” to the concept of “a being,” and is quite representative of his style. He says: That concept which enters into complete identity [incidit in identitatem omnimodam], nothing at all being added, with every ratio, does not say any one ratio. This proposition holds in virtue of a first principle: whatever are identical with one and the same thing are identical with each other, with that mode of identity by which they are identical with the third.