By J. A. McLean
This quantity offers a finished survey of the speculation, perform, and strategies of calorimetry as utilized to the learn of power metabolism in people and animals. Calorimetry is used to estimate dietary standards of guy and farm farm animals and to judge varied meals. it's also a robust software utilized in learn into primary dietary and physiological lifestyles techniques and within the evaluate of stresses imposed by means of irregular or serious environments. it really is presently being utilized in numerous branches of clinical learn and will be used as a diagnostic device in hospitals for research of metabolic issues. The authors talk about either direct calorimetry, which measures warmth loss without delay, and oblique calorimetry, the place warmth loss is inferred by way of size of a few of the chemical byproducts of metabolism. additionally, information is equipped to the instrumentation, technical difficulties, and precautions essential to receive actual calorimetric measurements.
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Additional resources for Animal and Human Calorimetry
Recently, however, increasing sensitivity of mass spectrometers have reduced the amount of isotope required and the method is being used for measurements on humans (Schoeller & Webb, Historical 23 1984; Schoeller & van Santen, 1982; Coward et ai, 1984). Agreement with mask methods for heat production is of the order of 10%. The doubly labelled water technique, like the radiocarbon method, measures only the carbon dioxide production which is not as accurate an indication of heat production as is oxygen consumption.
7. e. 7 kJ/g. 7 shows that prior to 1960 there was good agreement between the published calorific values for protein, which were mostly calculated on the basis that the nitrogenous waste products were those actually found in urine. Since then higher values have been published, particularly for the amount of oxygen consumed per gram of urinary nitrogen, these are calculated assuming the waste product is urea (Kleiber, 1961) or urea and ammonium sulphate (Dargol'tz, 1973; Braefield & Llewellyn, 1982).
The calorific factors used in indirect calorimetry must therefore be based on the transformations enclosed within the dotted lines of Fig. 4. g. Paul & Fig. 4. Diagram illustrating the net result of the food/energy transformations which occur in the body. Rectangular boxes indicate forms of energy. This diagram does not indicate the actual pathways of metabolism, but only pathways which are equivalent according to the Law of Hess. Gross energy of food Faecal energy Digestible energy Retained energy Mixture of carbohydrateeV 1 fat and protein metabolised Oxygen consumed Energy Retrievable work Nitrogenous products of protein metabolism U.