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By Mutsumi Yamamoto

The concept that of 'animacy' issues the elemental and cognitive query of the level to which we realize and exhibit residing issues as saliently human-like or animal-like. In Animacy and Reference Mutsumi Yamamoto pursues major pursuits: First, to set up a conceptual framework of animacy, and secondly, to give an explanation for how the idea that of animacy should be mirrored within the use of referential expressions. Unlike Read more...

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These entities are sometimes recognised simply as objects or places where certain events happen. When we think about certain organisations or local communities, it is not always the case that we associate particular individuals with them. They are sometimes symbolised by certain (inanimate) landmarks such as buildings, monuments, etc. Some of the features presented above are clearly manifested on the level of reference in an extract from a news report whose topic is a particular organisation: (9) Rocky Mountain College, dragged into the recent college athletic scandals because of its extension courses, has decided to drop that portion of its academic program.

D. Furious Moscow condemns ‘ridiculous’ Western action and demands Security Council meeting. (The Times, 12 April 1994) Greece was plunged into immediate mourning after hearing her [Melina Mercouri’s] death in a news flash. (The Times, 7 March 1994) Wall Street is in a panic. (Lakoff 1987: 77) BMW’s £800m take over means that, for the first time in 112 years, Britain no longer boasts a British-owned volume car maker. (The Independent, 1 February 1994) WHAT IS ‘ANIMACY’? 21 Moscow, Greece, Wall Street and Britain are the names of places or, by metonymic extension, communities whose (prototypical) members condemn ‘ridiculous’ Western action, are plunged into immediate mourning, are in a panic or no longer boast a British-owned volume car maker.

3 Concluding Remarks The Introduction and Chapter 1 have addressed the first objective in the present research: to propose a conceptual framework of ‘animacy’. After the set of interacting parameters — (A) the General Animacy Scale, (B) the Hierarchy of WHAT IS ‘ANIMACY’? e. the General Animacy Scale, the Hierarchy of Persons and the Individuation Scale, examining various aspects of ‘animacy per se’ and ‘inferred animacy’. In the centre of our discussions was the most fundamental, ontologicallyoriented parameter, the General Animacy Scale.

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