By Noel Burton-Roberts
This hugely winning textual content has lengthy been thought of a regular creation to the sensible research of English sentence constitution. As in earlier variants, key ideas equivalent to constituency, class and serve as are conscientiously defined as they're introduced.
content material: creation 1. Sentence constitution: materials 2. Sentence constitution: features three. Sentence constitution: different types four. the fundamental Verb word five. Adverbials and different issues 6. extra on verbs: auxiliary VPs7. The constitution of Noun words eight. Sentences inside of Sentences nine. Wh-clauses 10. Non-finite clauses eleven. Languages, sentences and grammars additional ReadingIndex
summary: This hugely winning textual content has lengthy been thought of a regular advent to the sensible research of English sentence constitution. As in earlier versions, key thoughts reminiscent of constituency, type and serve as are rigorously defined as they're brought
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Extra resources for Analysing sentences : an introduction to English syntax
The big difference between modifiers and heads, then, is this: in the structure of a phrase, modifiers are optional; the head is the obligatory element. A modifier~head relation also holds, at the next (higher) level of structure, between the whole phrase rather dubious and the word jokes. Rather dubious specifies the character of the jokes. Again, rather dubious as a whole is a dependent modifier of jokes but not vice-versa. Rather dubious is optional since it could be omitted (giving their jokes), but jokes – the head of the phrase – could not be omitted (*their rather dubious).
What we have here, then, is not the functional relation of modification, but the functional relation of complementation. Complements typically follow their heads in English. Modifiers can precede or follow their heads, though so far I’ve only given examples of modifiers preceding their heads. Beside a stream illustrates both these general kinds of dependency. qxd 5/13/10 15:26 Page 37 DEPENDENCY AND FUNCTION  Now look at .  Phil dreads affectionate cats. It’s a sentence – so, overall, it’s an example of the subject~predicate relation.
As you will have discovered, the appropriate questions are formed by introducing a form of the verb do. For the purposes of this test, it is convenient to assume that do is introduced as in –,  My new duck does lay lightly boiled eggs.  Elizabeth and Leicester do excel at Real Tennis.  The chiropodist did fall in love with most of his patients. and that the questions are formed from – by the now familiar movement of the subject (shown just in ), giving   Do [Elizabeth and Leicester] excel at Real Tennis?