By Kuo-Nan Liou (Eds.)
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Additional resources for An Introduction to Atmospheric Radiation
It is visible as a faint white halo during total eclipses. 1 illustrates the solar corona during the total eclipse of March 1970. It is generally believed that the corona has no outer boundary. A stream of gas called solar wind flows out of the corona and into the solar system continuously. An instrument called coronagraph has been used frequently in the past to study the chromosphere and corona in the absence of a natural eclipse. Strong emission lines of hydrogen and helium originating from the chromosphere disappear with increasing altitude, and they are replaced by the continuous spectrum of white light characteristic of the corona.
Consequently, flux density observations cannot be made in these regions. Therefore empirical corrections are needed for the omitted ranges, which account for about 8% of the solar flux. There are sources of error inherent in the Smithsonian long method caused by (1) empirical corrections for absorption of ultraviolet by ozone, and absorption of infrared by water vapor and carbon dioxide in the wings of the solar spectrum; (2)an unknown amount of diffuse radiation entering the aperture of the observing instrument; (3) variations of k A and the possible effects of aerosols during a series of measurements, and (4) measurement errors.
The instrument corresponding to these measurements is called bologram. 1 Long Method Assume that the atmosphere consists of plane parallel layers. At a given sun's position, which is denoted by the solar zenith angle eo, the effective path length of the air mass is u sec eo, where u = roo p dz. 5) In this equation, 2 1 is the height of the station. Yl is the monochromatic transmissivity defined in Eq. 51),and m( =sec eo) represents the ratio of the air mass between the sun and observer and that at the local zenith distance.