By Farid Chemat, Maryline Abert Vian
This publication offers an entire photograph of the present state of the art in replacement and eco-friendly solvents used for laboratory and business common product extraction when it comes to the most recent suggestions, unique equipment and secure items. It offers the mandatory theoretical heritage and information on extraction, thoughts, mechanisms, protocols, commercial purposes, safeguard precautions and environmental affects. This e-book is geared toward execs from undefined, academicians engaged in extraction engineering or ordinary product chemistry learn, and graduate point scholars. the person chapters supplement each other, have been written by means of revered foreign researchers and famous execs from the undefined, and tackle the most recent efforts within the box. it's also the 1st sourcebook to target the fast advancements during this field.
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Additional info for Alternative Solvents for Natural Products Extraction
Some particles may be discarded according to the particle diameter range of interest. • Chemical reaction: A reaction step is not commonly applied, but it can be useful in particular cases. A chemical reaction may be performed to free the target solutes and improve the extraction efficiency. 4 The Definition of the Pseudoternary System In SFE from natural matrices, the obtained extracts are complex mixtures composed of different groups of chemical compounds. Therefore, the extract is always a multicomponent system.
14 Preparation of N-butyl-4-carboxypyrrolidinone ester starting from itaconic acid (left). -potential of the product ( ) compared to those of classical weak electron pair donor bases belonging to cluster II (in grey) (Adapted from Ref. ) The methodology was applied to itaconic acid, an organic acid obtained by sugar fermentation, and it highlighted a family of solvents that are readily obtained in two steps, the N-butyl-4-carboxypyrrolidinone esters (Fig. 14). This family containing a lactam function is of great interest since it is positioned in cluster II according to the COSMO-RS classification, a class of solvents that is not much populated by current “green” solvents (Fig.
This approach has been exemplified on the generation of itaconic acid-derived solvents and is presented in the last section. 2 Automatic Generation of New Solvent Structures The interest for using renewable resources (biomass) instead of fossil resources (coal, oil) has grown exponentially in the last years. The “biorefinery” concept, 1 In Silico Search for Alternative Green Solvents 21 Fig. 12 Schematic representation of the building blocks that are currently or will soon be obtained from biorefineries, ordered by increasing number of carbon atoms.