Download Air Pollution and Health in Rapidly Developing Countries by Gordon McGranahan, Frank Murray PDF

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By Gordon McGranahan, Frank Murray

(Earthscan) Murdoch Univ., Australia. textual content reports contemporary advancements within the box and their relevance for public health and wellbeing in constructing international locations. provides stories from Asian, African, and Latin American international locations; and contrasts findings with these from Europe and North the USA. Softcover.

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1 Risk transition outdoor air pollution, hazardous materials, traffic etc (Smith, 1997). Similar patterns are likely to hold in many other low and middle income regions. It is generally, although not always, true that economic growth, in addition to extending the temporal and spatial scales of impacts, tends to shift health risks from the direct to the indirect. Direct health risks, for example, result from the inhalation of toxic pollutants. Indirect risks, in contrast, result from processes such as a shift in disease vectors coming from climate change induced by greenhouse gas (GHG) pollutants that may have no direct health impact.

Much the same applies to the relatively large amount of attention given to ambient air pollution as compared to indoor air pollution. From a political perspective, there is no overriding reason why the same standard of scientific rigour should be required to motivate policy actions to address comparable problems that have received very different amounts of research. The result would be policies systematically favouring the problems of the affluent. On the other hand, air pollution standards are only as good as their monitoring and enforcement.

The first tendency appears to dominate at lower income levels, while the second dominates at the upper end. Thus studies have found that urban sulphur dioxide concentrations tend to increase with economic development, and then to decline as air pollution controls become more stringent (Grossman and Krueger, 1995; Shafik, 1995). There are indications that some other healththreatening pollutants, such as coarse particulates and lead, follow similar patterns. Overall, the worst ambient air pollution problems are often located in industrialized cities in middle income countries.

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