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By Uzi Baram, Lynda Carroll

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Extra resources for A Historical Archaeology Of The Ottoman Empire - Breaking New Ground

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This understanding of the development of the çiftlik has been challenged in recent studies. 1 Other studies have led to a related conclusion, that the traditional Ottoman system was never applied in Crete. Instead, the land was left in the free possession of its inhabitants, as ‘The explanations furnished by the laws of Chania and Candia in 1676 following the conquest of Crete openly reject the system of land ownership by the state as contrary to Islamic tradition’ (Barkan [1983:21–2]. Also see Veinstein [1991:40] and Veinstein and Triantafyllidou-Baladie [1980:200–201]).

TriantafyllidouBaladie 1988:172 ) Meanwhile, outside the cities, what was the situation of the rural population, such as the farmers of the Vrokastro survey area? Clearly the Ottoman authorities were most concerned with the city population, and although they kept track of the rural population for purposes of forced labor and taxes, their interest in the peasantry largely ended with these exactions. Travelers who passed through the countryside described the living conditions of tenant farmers and smallholders.

Leone, M. P. 1995 A Historical Archaeology of Capitalism. American Anthropologist 97(2):251–268. Leone, M. P. and P. Potter, Jr. (eds. ) 1988 The Recovery of Meaning: Historical Archaeology in the Eastern United States. C. 30 Uzi Baram and Lynda Carroll Levy, T. E. ) 1995 The Archaeology of Society in the Holy Land. Leicester University Press, London. Marcus, A. 1989 The Middle East on the Eve of Modernity: Aleppo in the Eighteenth Century. Columbia University Press, New York. Masters, B. 1988 The Origins of Western Economic Dominance in the Middle East: Mercantilism and the Islamic Economy in Aleppo, 1600–1750.

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